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Basil roui recipe

Basil roui recipe

  • Recipes
  • Dish type
  • Starters

Pronounced "Basil Roo-ee", this delicious dish is the perfect summer starter. Serve with toasted baguette slices or pitta wedges.

22 people made this

IngredientsServes: 8

  • 1 large bunch fresh basil, finely chopped
  • 2 small tomatoes, finely chopped
  • 150g (5 oz) dried breadcrumbs
  • 3 cloves garlic, minced
  • 1 green chilli, seeded and finely chopped
  • 1 teaspoon sea salt
  • 6 to 8 tablespoons olive oil

MethodPrep:15min ›Ready in:15min

  1. In a medium bowl, stir together the basil, tomatoes, breadcrumbs, garlic, chilli, sea salt and olive oil. Cover, and refrigerate overnight. Serve with crusty bread, pitta or crisps!

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Reviews & ratingsAverage global rating:(18)

Reviews in English (17)

Altered ingredient amounts.5445-08 Aug 2008

by Sharon M.

Too much breadcrumb, or not enough tomato - I'm not sure which. This recipe is good but it would be much better with about half the breadcrumb. It is dry as is...-05 Jul 2007

Roasted Garlic Sauce

Bite into our delicious Tender and Fluffy Scrambled Eggs made with Hellmann's® or Best Foods Real Mayonnaise, its our secret ingredient!

  • Dairy free
  • Egg free
  • Gluten free
  • Lactose free
  • Nut free
  • Paleo diet
  • Pregnancy safe
  • Raw food
  • Vegan
  • Vegetarian
  • Wheat free

Super-Fast Southwestern Salsa Dip Recipe

Dive into our delicious Super-Fast Southwestern Salsa Dip made with Hellmann's® Southwestern Ranch Flavored Reduced Fat Mayonnaise.

  • Dairy free
  • Egg free
  • Gluten free
  • Lactose free
  • Nut free
  • Paleo diet
  • Pregnancy safe
  • Raw food
  • Vegan
  • Vegetarian
  • Wheat free

Turkey & Cheese Sandwich Recipe

Have leftover turkey? Use it here in this classic lunchtime favorite!

  • Dairy free
  • Egg free
  • Gluten free
  • Lactose free
  • Nut free
  • Paleo diet
  • Pregnancy safe
  • Raw food
  • Vegan
  • Vegetarian
  • Wheat free

Classic Tuna Salad Sandwich Recipe

Here is a super-easy classic tuna salad recipe that will become a lunchtime favorite!

  • Dairy free
  • Egg free
  • Gluten free
  • Lactose free
  • Nut free
  • Paleo diet
  • Pregnancy safe
  • Raw food
  • Vegan
  • Vegetarian
  • Wheat free

We provide condiments that taste good and are a force for good.

On the one hand, the world has never loved food so much– we watch more shows about it than ever, read stories about it every day, talk about it constantly, we blog about it, tweet about it, brag about it.

Fake milk but read cheese

I grew up with the shaker cheese--the shelf stable classic has no business in this recipe. Years ago, Ina Garten was interviewed and was asked in what case is store-bought "not fine." She explained of all the substitutes out there, parmesan cheese was the one thing you should not substitute. I agree.

As a general philosophy, I have been reminding myself and others that YOU DESERVE REAL CHEESE. Yes, fat free is low in points and calories. Shredded cheese is super convenient. Shaker cheese lasts forever. Say it to yourself, "you deserve real cheese." You deserve cheese that melts, that has flavor, that makes you happy. Food is meant to be enjoyed, not something you consider quantity over quality.

Parmesan cheese can be expensive, but you can get it cheap. My two favorite ways to buy parmesan on the cheap are: buying it at Trader Joes OR buying cheese rinds from Wegmans or other supermarkets where available. Typically stores sell the rinds (which I always freeze for soups and stocks) with plenty of cheese to grate. I promise, ditch the shaker cheese and try this once--you'll never go back.

Classic French Fish Soup with Croutons and Garlic Mayonnaise

3 tbsp olive oil
1 carrot , chopped
1 celery stalk, chopped
3 tbsp chopped fresh parsley
3 or 4 sprigs of thyme
2 star anise
1 tsp fennel seeds
4-5 cloves
1 medium bulb of fennel, halved and medium diced
2 fresh bay leaves
10 Prawns, skins and heads for the broth, meat for the soup
1 tbsp tomato purée
2 cloves of garlic , very finely sliced
1 cup (200ml) dry white wine
1/2 tin of chopped tomatoes
Pinch of saffron
Juice of one orange
5 cups (1.2 liters) store-bought fish stock
1 lb (500g) sea bass, sea bream, gurnard, sole, plaice, or a mixture, filleted, skinned and cut into large pieces
6oz (170g) Mussels
2 tbsp Butter
2 tbsp Flour
Splash of brandy
Splash of olive oil
Shredded cheese , to taste

For the garlic mayonnaise :
8 tbsp store-bought mayonnaise, such as Hellmann’s
1 tsp hot Tunisian chili puree
2 anchovies, finely chopped
3 cloves of garlic, chopped
1 tsp Dijon mustard
Small squeeze of fresh lemon juice

1. Pour the olive oil into a large pan or soup pot. Over a medium heat, sauté the carrot, celery, thyme, star anise, cloves, fennel, bay leaves, fennel seeds, parsley, and the skins and heads of the prawns for about 10 minutes, stirring often, until nearly tender. Add the white wine and allow it to cook down for a few minutes.

2. Pour in the store-bought fish stock. Add the chopped tomatoes, saffron, and the orange juice. Bring the soup back to a simmer and cook for about 10 minutes.

3. Next, make the garlic mayonnaise. Put the Tunisian chili, mayonnaise, mustard, and lemon juice into a bowl and mix them together. Finely chop the anchovies together with the garlic. Purée the anchovies and garlic with the side of the knife. Stir in the garlic and anchovies and put to one side.

4. Pour all of the broth through a fine mesh strainer. Press against the ingredients caught in the strainer to make sure every drop of broth can be collected.

5. In a new pot, stir the butter and flour until they are evenly mixed. Add the strained broth back into the pot, a little at a time. Add a splash of brandy.

6. While the broth reduces, slice the baguette and dab olive oil on one side of each slice. Place the slices of baguette into a pre-heated oven at 355°F (220°C) for 10-15 minutes or until they are crispy and dry enough to use as croutons.

7. When the broth begins to bubble, add your fish, along with the peeled prawns and mussels. Cook for 2-4 minutes, until the fish is just cooked.

8. To serve, ladle the soup into bowls. On your croutons, spread a dollop of garlic mayonnaise and sprinkle some of the shredded cheese. Place these on the soup.

What is bouillabaisse?

No doubt you&rsquove heard of the seafood version of bouillabaisse which is Marseille&rsquos signature dish. The seafood version is typically prepared for a large number of people with a minimum of three different types of seafood. Because of the seafood, it can be pricey.

The flavorings of the classic seafood version work well with budget-friendly chicken in this Chicken Bouillabaisse and it&rsquos less fussy to prepare. Think of it as a French chicken stew.

This version is inspired by Julia Child&rsquos recipe in Mastering the Art of French Cooking, Volume #2. Oh, Julia, where would we all be without you?

I had the amazing opportunity to meet Julia Child twice and I cherish those memories. Miss you, Julia, but your culinary influence lives on in all of us.

Power of the Witch

Published by Delacorte Press Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc.

The Tishman Building 52nd Street and Fifth Avenue New York, New York 10103 Copyright

1989 by Laurie Cabot with Tom Cowan

reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without the written permission of the Publisher, except where permitted by law.

The trademark Delacorte Press

@ is registered Patent and Trademark Office.

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Power of the

Cabot, Laurie. / Laurie Cabot

rsBN 0-38s-29786-6 2. Magic. 3. Cabot, Laurie. Thomas Dale. II. Title. BF1566.C26 89-32465

Manufactured in the United States of America Published simultaneously

Illustrutions @ by Lisa St. /ohn October 1989

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Bentov, Itzhak, Stalking the WiId PenduLum, E. P. Dut-

ton, New York, 1977. Bradley, Marion Zimmer, The Mists of Avalon, Ballantine Books, New York, 1982. Campbell, |oseph, The Way of the Animal Powerc, Harper and Row, San Francisco, 1983. Capra, Fritja, The Tao of Physics, Bantam Books, New York, 1975. Cowan, Thomas, How to Tap into Your Own Genius, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1984. Davis, Elizabeth Gould, The First Jax, Penguin Books, New York, 1971. Evans, Arthur, The God of Ecstasy: Sex RoLes and the Madness of Dionysos, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1988.

Gittelson, Bernard and Laura Torbet, Intangible Evidence, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1987. The Kybalion: Hermetic Philosophy by Three Initiates, The Yogi Publication Society, Chicago, 1912. Martello, Leo Louis, Witchcraft: The OId Religion, Citadel Press, Secaucus, New |ersey, 1973. Murray, Margaret A., The God of the Witches, Oxford University Press, London, 1970. Peat, F. David, Synchronicity: The Bfidge between Matter and Mind, Bantam Books, New York, 1987. Starhawk, Dreaming the Dark: Magic, Sex, and Politics, Beacon Press, Boston, 1982. Sidd, Monica and Barbara Mor, The Great Cosmic Mother: Rediscovering the Religion of the Earth, Harper and Row, San Francisco, 1987. Stone, Merlin, When God Was a Woman, Harcourt Brace fovanovich, New York, 1976. Thompkins, Peter and Christopher Bird, The Secret Life of Plants, Harper and Row, San Francisco, 1973. Walker, Barbara, The Woman's Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets, Harper and Row, San Francisco, 1983.

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Witch friend of mine was recently fired from her f ob as a hair stylist because she wore her pentacle on a chain around her neck. Another friend was not allowed to put "Wicca" on the admitting form at a local hospital when he was asked to state his religion the clerk refused to type it and left the line blank. These Witches were open about who they were. Many, however, are not. You can't tell most Witches by the way they dress or by their jewelry, which is often hidden beneath their clothes. You can spot them by their magic. As a young girl growing up in California, I didn't know that I was a Witch. I didn't really know what the word Witch meant or what a Witch was. I didn't even realize that my talents were any different from other people's. Today I would say they were not different. I simply retained those talents and developed them while other children lost them. The first "media Witch" I ever saw was in Walt Disney's film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. Even though I was a small child, I sensed that it was not a true portrait of a Witch. I guess I accepted the fact that a wicked queen who had magical powers could turn herself into a hideous old hag, but I instinctively knew that there was more to it than that. I knew those powers could also be used for good. Wasn't the prince's kiss that woke Snow White from her sleep also magic? I resisted the notion that magic was the work of devils and evildoers. I knew a magic kiss could undo evil. Bible classes were confusing for me. We learned that we "should not suffer a Witch to live," but we also learned that it was wrong to kill. I was so worried about this command to kill Witches thar I actually thought I had some moral duty to hunt down and kill Witches. I remember asking my mother if it was my personal responsibility to kill all the eccentric old ladies in the

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    running along the earth's ley lines moves in a similar manner. Coils, spirals, waves. It was science. But it was as serpentine and mysterious as the hidden life of snakes. Throughout my childhood I suspected that there was more information and knowledge than people were giving me, and by some ability that I did not at the rime understand I could sometimes pick up on that withheld information. For example, when I was four I overheard my father's friends discussing engineering and architecture. I sidled up to where they were sitting and wormed my way into the conversation with innocent questions. At first they humored me with childlike answers, but soon, I was asking rather penetrating questions. They were amazed at how much I knew about a subject that was new to me. They were astounded. Much later I realized how I was able to hold my own with the adults. I was drawing in information from those around me and possibly from a higher source. Once at a family gathering, when I was, I heard my uncle talking about a valuable antique car that he and his brothers and sisters owned fointly. He stood tall, a drink in his hand, and told them that the car had been stolen from the storage garage. As I listened to his long story I could also "hear" him saying something else quite different, as if he were whispering secretly to himself-that he had sold the car and intended to keep the money! Being young, I could not distinguish between mental voices and spoken words, and so, being also naive, I asked, "But, lJncle, I heard you say that you sold the car." The room fell silent. My delicate mother grew nervous and softly scolded me. "Laurie, you shouldn't say such things!" I could tell both from my uncle's own nervousness and what was running through his clever mind that I had caught him in a lie. But who would listen to a fiveyear-old? I think that what kept my Witch soul alive was that I

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    POWER OF THE WITCH As I think back over my childhood today I can recognize many incidents in which I discovered and used these unorthodox techniques of power and knowledge. Most people can do the same. Why then do most people forget them or repress them? The answer is rather simple: As children we listened to parents, teachers, and other adults disapprove of magic. In our desire to please them and be like them, we accepted their worldview that magical powers were wrong, dangerous/ or simply nonexistent. As the years went by those talents were "conditioned" out of us. Some fortunate children, however, escape this conditioning. They are born into families where psychic abilities are understood, accepted, and eyen encouraged. When they have "strange" experiences their parents reassure them that nothing is wrong with them. These children learn that the world, as the Yaqui sorcerer told anthropologist Carlos Castenada, "is stupendous, awesome/ mysterious, unfathomable" and that they "must assume responsibility for being here, in this marvelous world in this marvelous time." These children learn to expect the unexpected and not limit their knowledge to what can pass through the five senses. I wish someone had told me about precognition the year that old Mr. Bancroft died. One day Kenny, the boy next door, came running over to tell me that the man who lived in the old yellow Victorian house that I had always felt drawn toward when I passed it on the way to school each day had died of a heart attack. I immediately told my mother what Kenny had said, and she replied, "What? Mr. Bancroft hasn't died." She looked at me in a funny way. But she was right. Mr. Bancroft was quite alive. I felt confused and said nothing more about it. A week later Mr. Bancroft died of a heart attack. I waited after school for Kenny and asked him how he knew a week ago that Mr. Bancroft would die of a heart attack. He, too, looked at me in a puzzled way. "I don't

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    for me. I never shared their shock. Deep inside me these things made sense. Deep inside I was thrilled. The ancient power of magic is both spiritual and scientific. In recent years I have met many "New Age" people who ignore the need to ground themselves scientifically. It takes more than wishful thinking to be a competent, practicing Witch. I have come to call many of these people "white-lighters" because all they want to do is worship and be spiritual. I have nothing against worship and spiritual works. But many people forget that magical workings impose upon us the responsibility of knowing how our magic works. We must know both the physical and metaphysicai principles that underlie all magic and spiritual work so that we can use our powers correctly and for the good of all. When it comes right down to it, Witches are still human. We are not disembodied beings composed solely of white light we don't live in a blissed-out state of astral happiness. We laugh, we bleed, we cry. We must know how to live m the world, not iust "between the worlds." I hope that the wisdom and knowledge that you learn from this book will ground you in both worlds and awaken your responsibility for both worlds. It is only by being responsible human beings that we can be responsible Witches. And only responsible Witches will survive.

    vented language, writing, metallurgy, law, agriculture, and the arts. Their rituals and ceremonies, their spells and incantations, their prayers and sacrifices were expressions of their oneness with the source of all life, the Great Mother of all living things. First and foremost the magic-makers were healers who could diagnose illness and prescribe the correct medicine and ritual to heal their patients. Always performed in a social context that included the family and relatives, the ancient healers' magic worked because it was holistic, drawing on the patient's own healing power and working with the elements and spirits of the patient's environment. It dealt with both the physical and spiritual causes of disease-the invasion of harmful spirits or substances and the debilitating effects of soul loss. Ancient healers could withdraw the harmful objects from the body and retrieve lost souls. Ancient magic-workers were also spiritual leaders and counselors who officiated at important rites of passage. They performed marriages, sanctified births, anointed the newborn, initiated young people into adulthood, and led the souls of the dying into the next world. Because they stood "between the worlds" of spirit and matter, they could serve as bridgers and mediators between the human and the divine. People came to them with their visions and dreams. Sometimes they alone could help an individual discover his or her guardian spirits and sacred names.

    As compelling seers, prophets, and visionaries, they answered questions about the past and the future. They interpreted omens. They advised on auspicious times to plant, get married, travel, go on vision quests. Some of them had the power to raise storms, bring rain, and calm seas.

    They were the Animal Masters, who understood our kinship with all creatures. They knew the minds and

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    from China to Spain. In mining and metalworking, sculpture and art, poetry and literature, law and social customs the Celtic peoples left an indelible stamp on European culture. From their scientific and spiritual customs the modern Witch derives much of her Craft. With a remarkable ability to blend both the practical and the metaphysical-the Celts developed the traction plow, rectangular field systems, and crop rotation, as well as theories about the immortality of the soul and reincarnation-the Druidic leaders of the Celts stand as shining models for the modern Witch. A Witch's knowledge is old. Her worldview is ancient. People who pride themselves on being modern often dismiss Witchcraft as fantasy, superstition, or make-believe. Biased accounts of ancient people, written by historians who were convinced of their own culture's superiority, have made our ancestors' civilizations look barbaric, ignorant/ and savage. But the truth about the ancient ways can't be suppressed. Witchcraft thrived in the so-called primitive cultures of the past, it thrived in the highly developed cultures of the past. It thrives today.

    MACICAL CHILDHOODS What is true in the macrocosm is true in the microcosm. Many modern Witches trace their first encounters with magic back to very early times in their childhoods, when their innocence and abiiity to wonder paralleled that of our earliest ancestors. In fact, even when recognized later in life, magic fills us with a sense of awe as it breaks forth in our lives. Adults feel a kind of childlike wonder and surprise during their first magical experiences. |ust as the child loses its sense of oneness with the universe as it develops ego boundaries and learns how to

    'enD eroru uela paueas e^?r< (Eru daql 'aldual ro qcrnqc ur pEeJ aleq ,(uru nol. sarnldrrcs aql sB enD sP ero..v sqrdur plo eql no,( pue '1nos rnod ur deap Sutql ^ou>l eAEq , preeq ro aldoad al>lrl ro slrrrds uees aaur < deu notr 'srBls aq>uror nol. o> Surruoc raru.od urBueo u 'slurld puu sleturue qlrl puoq e 'arnl -Eu rleJ e^Bq deu notr 'an4 aruu3 ]l puu qsr^ alqeqordurr uB epuru 'lg peddernun nod aro -aq luasard e aprsur su,/v lerI 'slq8noq> s,auoauros pear nod sdeqre4 'd1elr1rn1u1 puu (lsnoaueluods aurec a8pe1,,*ou4 uaql uorsecco uu 'rvrou4 l,uplp sraqlo Sutql -eruos aeu>I nod ueqrvr lueprcur uE raquaurar dlqrqord /pooqplqc ,(1ree rno.,( olur /acro e>rl orues er<> eruqs sSurql Surrrrl IIE pue qupa oqJ 're>lBru qunp '1raur 11 sr Jar<>rau /duraue fiio lou sr plJolv eqJ :uol>Berc tnoqe qlnrt crsrq er raaau e^eq seqr>r.AA >nB 'druaue eql sB lr /ver^ ol eruBJ daqt ,(llentua^a 'eur^rp rou luaSrllelul reqlrau se arntuuo rq8noqr daql arurt u1 'tr Suttroldxe '1r Surnpqns 'alnluu lsureSe Sur4rorw sallasueql puno daqr 'ppor* IErruEu eql ruoq palorual eJorrr puB eJoru sarlelcos pel?elf, usruolrr pu? ueru sv 'eJnlBu urorl dur*e paAIoAe deql se dliun Jo esues lBrsol ser>ercos uerunq 'ppor'r eqr ]o lser eqt uror dpoq lf,urtsrp pue eleredes slr lcetord


    A WITCH'S MACIC To me the word Witch is a delicious word, filled with the most ancient memories that go back to our earliest ancestors, who lived close to natural cycles and understood and appreciated the power and energy that we share with the cosmos. The word Witch can stir these memories and feelings even in the most skeptical mind. The word itself has evolved through many centuries and cultures. There are different opinions about its origins. In old Anglo-Saxon, wicca and wicce (masculine and feminine respectively) refer to a seer or one who can divine information by means of magic. From these root words we derive the word Wicca, a term many in the Craft use today to refer to our beliefs and practices. Wych in Saxon and wicce in Old English mean to "turn, bend, shape." An even earlier Indo-European root word, wic, or weik, also means to "bend or shape." As Witches we bend the energies of nature and humanity to promote healing, growth, and life. We turn the Wheel of the Year as the seasons go by. We shape our lives and environments so they promote the good things of the earth, The word Witch has also been traced back to the old Germanic root wit-to know. And this, too, gives some insight into what a Witch is-a person of knowledge, a person versed in both scientific and spiritual truths. In the origins of many languages the concept of " /itch" was part of a constellation of words for "wise" or "wise ones." In English we see this most clearly in the word magic, which derives from the Greek magos and the old Persian word magus. Both these words mean "seer" or "wrzard." In Old English the word wizard meant "one who is wise." In many languages Witch is

    aql arB elrl Jo sarJals,(Iu eql roJ-uoour Jo sarJelsdu puB /r ur punoJ arB leqt etII lo sarralsdru aql qlur ]Jauuocer 01 ueuo^ pue ueru qloq Surpeal sr saurl ar ur pelseralur Sururoceq erB uoru erour 'slueJur uroqlou ro Surrec Jo serlrlrqrsuodser eql uo e<81 puB r<>4qplqc ur ]srssB ueru eJoru sB lBql ecueprcuroc B lou sl lI 'uaiu arB uBql lr Surqsrrnou puu ar1 Surcnpord ur pe8u8ue erour d11ecr3o1orq aJE ueruolv pue 'ar1 rllrl sleap remod s,qcll/A V 'rer3 s,urruo^ E sE UErJrrlA Jo Suqutql roJ uosBer poo8 e sr ereqJ 'esrr oql uo sr ueru Jo Jaq -unu eql q8noqrle 'uaruorv ere UBJJ eql jo srauorlrlcerd lsour depol ueAE 'uaruolv erel UErJqcU,A Surcrlcerd roJ patncexe era..v oqivr eldoed o suorllrlll aql Jo luac -red gg serurl Sururng eqt Suunq 'ser ur uetu >nq 'ueru uuq> raqleJ uaruolv r 'ctSeut o ra,r,rod erll effrleer) ar ur dluo 11emp qorqrvr 'ssau -relelf, pue 'uorleturour 'ecue8rlletur eJeru tuoJJ lueJeJ -JIp sI tI 'puru aql lsn< tou '1nos eql ser

    sr (sarrlunoc Surleeds-qsu8ug uI p1p ,,esJnu dJ1unoc,, se lsn( ,,'rl.dA,, lureru uelJo seere Iernr ur leql rurel r) atr*prur JoJ pJolv eqt qJuar < uI 'Iuopsrlv roJ srrrra>drpdrerra 'uouluroc eql ur poleeJuoJ 'prol* uappq aql


    Magic is knowledge and power that come from the ability to shift consciousness at will into a nonordinary, visionary state of awareness. Traditionally certain tools and methods have been used to cause this shift: dance, song/ music, colors, scents/ drumming, fasting, vigils, meditation, breathing exercises, certain natural foods and drinks, and forms of hypnosis. Dramatic, mystical environments/ such as sacred groves/ valleys, mountains, churches, or temples, will also shift consciousness. In almost every culture some form of visionary trance is used for the sacred rituals that open the doorways to the Higher Intelligence or for working magic. From Neolithic times the practice of Witchcraft has always centered around symbolic rituals that stimulate the imagination and shift awareness. Hunting rituals, vision quests, and healing ceremonies were always performed in the rich context of the symbols and metaphors unique to each culture. Today a Witch's meditations and spells continue this practice. A Witch's work is mind work and utilizes powerful metaphors, allegories, and images that unlock the powers of the mind. The Huichol Indians of Mexico tell us that the mind has a secret doorway that they call tlne nierika. For most people it remains closed until the time of death. But the Witch knows how to open and pass through that doorway even in life and bring back through it the visions of nonordinary realities that give purpose and meaning to life. The images and symbols of Witchcraft have a mysterious and magical quality because they tap into something deeper and more mysterious than ourselves. They trigger the ageless truths that dwell in the unconscious, which, as the great psychologist and student of world religions Carl |ung suggested, merge with the instinctual responses of the animal kingdom and may even encompass all of creation. The deepest knowledge, just on the other side

    lBrl Jo surellgd aI<1 IBaAer >Bq> saBBIuI eq> erB esaqJ 'ra^od qll1vl pellg slsleru puB /slBrurue 'slueld per3Es ruoJJ apBlu Surqtolc puB slool parsBs ',suorplnec 'sdnc's1moq'spuurvr's11aqs'sreqlea'srua8'stunrp :spuels -repun puu sazruSocar d1a.,rr1rn1ug pulur snorcsuocun deap aqr luqt sroqdeleru puB s1oqu,(s uI qclr saorlcerd pelearc aAEr< aJnllnc drana >o uouo/! puu ualu dloq sautt ]sarlrBe eq] uorJ 1?q] pug e^ os puv 'slua^e snoulul -nu pue lBnlrr ur pesuas pue sloqruds pue sa8uurt ut dluo ulvou>l eq uBc leql sarSraua leddteqrru o Luldralul eql ruorJ sllnser purru eql Jo ernlonrtrs aql lBI<> sn s11ar 8un< 'duoruaral puu 'eruerp '1un1rr 'loqurds 'ql,l s,qtlllA Y 'esre^run eqr Jo lseJ al lcauuoc ,(lleuosred nod rvroq pue are nod oq,u. Jo laJoes eql sI Suraq rnod o reluec eqt uI papJenC 'eptus nod ,(rrvr aql '(e1d nod r*oq 'ree nod leqr* 'aqr1 nod s8utqt eql ,(q JIas lsadaap rnodo sasdurrlS pue slurq e,r€ (1uo uec nod lsaq lv 'puBlsJepun ,/vou nod ueql osre^run oqi o] aJoru sI ereql r'rou>I nod se tsnl 'ssardxa Jo ees uec nod uuqt nod no 'auolB sprolv Lq Suraq uBrunq 01 aJorrr sr eJarl

    'elqB/vou>lun pu? elqrsr^ur sruees


    to the secret power hidden in the center of

    things, including our own hearts. images,

    we can-as Witches say-"draw down

    puB selBl eqt dldrurs tou-uorl8el' lnoqE sr uofrlar IIV ,,'uorSrleu plo aq>,, iFt seqclr/a 18q^ sr lI 's]erTaq l?nlrrds u1vlo Jo lrBar< aql >3 arl selJelsl.Iu luerJuB aruBs eqJ 'secllcerd lBnlrfids ]uerJus ur uorsserdxe Jo dlrun E pug speeu eer<> eseq> pu? /ansap uBrunq eruBs aql Jo slrBd IIU erB puBlsrepun puB /drqs -ro.lvl /repuon ol paau eqJ 'redeep puB JaqcrJ 1vloJ8 dar <>uJepou u1 'Surueeur aurec Sutpuetsrepun ruory pue 'SurpuelsJapun aurrc drqsror* puB Iepuolv o] paau aqr Jo lno 'seuelsl(ru ,

    legends of how a creator or creators brought forth the universe, but how living men, women, and children participate in the ongoing generation of the universe. Creation is never finished, it is an eternal process. In some native traditions people sing the sun up at dawn and chant it down at dusk. There is profound wisdom in this that cannot be repudiated by the contention that the sun could very well rise and set without human assistance. The turning of day into night and winter into spring should be human as well as divine activities. As followers of the Old Religion, Witches take an active part in what we call turning the Wheel of the Year and participating in the course of the seasons. We are co-creators of the universe.

    OUR MOTHER THE EARTH Religion is about creation, and for that reason religion should be about the earth. To many people this comes as a surprise because modern religious thinking emphasizes salvation over creation and focuses on heaven and hell rather than earth. But pagans believed that biological processes are spiritual processes and that there is divine meaning in every natural event. As participants in the ongoing drama of creation our ancestors believed that the great mysteries of life were the mysteries of transformation: how things turn into other things, how things grow, die, and are reborn. Perhaps nowhere in their experience did they see these events more personally and intimately than in the transformations of woman. The ability to conceive a new human life, give birth, produce milk, and to bleed with the phases of the moon was awe-inspiring. The centrality of

    world mythologies foseph Campbell emphasizes in The Way of the Animal Powers, "This definitely is not a work of naturalistic art, but a conceived abstraction, delivering a symbolic statement." From their positions in holy places and grave sites they represented something sacred. The female organs were clearly "numinous centers," as Monica Sjoii and Barbara Mor tell us in their comprehensive and inspiring study of the worldwide Goddess traditions, The Great Cosmic Mother: Rediscovering the Religion of the Earth. At a time when the male role in conception was not understood, or only vaguely understood, the mother's body was viewed as the only source of life, just as the earth was the only source of biological life. There are no similar depictions of men dating back this far. Indeed, the role of the male in conception is a rather recent discovery, dating back only about five thousand years. The father's role in conception was probably not widely understood until about 3000 B.C.E. The great pioneer anthropologist Bronislaw Malinowski discovered twentieth-century Stone Age cultures in Polynesia that only dimly understood the male contribution. It is not surprising that the father's role should have gone unnoticed for so long. Since a woman does not become pregnant with every act of intercourse, nor does she know she is pregnant until days or weeks have passed, the con-

    nection between conception and sexual activity with males is not immediately obvious. To our ancestors it appeared that the male "opened" the vagina but that the actual placement of the young life in the womb was the work of divine power, perhaps the light of the moon, maybe a spirit visitor. Or from the worldwide distribution of myths about parthenogenesis, perhaps the woman had the power to produce life solely on her own. At any rate, the concept of fatherhood and permanent mating developed rather late in human history. As anthropolo-

    -cedsred lucoprlBru Suorls srl qll,tr. 'uo€qeg 'alBrueJ

    14/ aqt $Da[ p rc/ apwa/ sol po2,, :,<>

    drerl lr pres eAEr < JoW EJpqrEg puB oolg ecruow 'alBlu -aJ sB./r uorlBerc pulqeq rer'rod eur^rp aql lBr<>arunssB ol elqruosueJ lr punoJ sJolsecue rno 're.uod aurlrp qlr.r qlrue eqt pur 'qlree eql qll^ SutdJttuapt dlasolo os dg 'uooru Surxer* eql a>lII rolln] pue rallnJ r*ar8 pue poolq slr peurBleJ qruon eql ueq^ pesBo3 puB uoolu tler aqt 'apetlg EacrIW ruoJ eseJr/tu,, lear8 aq1 'etn>Bu o se1c,(c luaJrncel eql palalered salcdc luerrncer s,uEIuo/A 'aJII io eJrnos aql sBlv usruo1!.rar*od qlrBe puB rer'rod alBrua> ueollueq uorl -ceuuoc alBrurlur eql poolsJopun srolsecus rno lBql JBelc sr lr elarleq l-proo lecr1rqrun eql dq rar< ol pe>cauuoo Ilrls uloq^eu aql 'ro qllea^ B lrror< Jeqtow learC eql ol raqlou a18urs u tuor 'qurorvr ol quo/r uioJJ-elrl o alcdr ateldruoc eql eq ot /veu>l srolsesuB e3y ac1 rno ]Brr/v petured sauoq rraql 'uorlrsod lute dn -palrnc E ur parrnq pBap naql qlrrvr 'eruuellur dueu 4ceq Surtep 'salrs arrer8 lequepueeN pug a^ 'sernSg snue1 eql peAJEo lur<> saueroos uou3u141-oJJ ar<> ueql reIIJEe uel[ ,,'peqsrlqBlse eruBf,oq [dIurEJ pqcrerrted eqt] 1I leql perueuruoc uorlezrlrlrc paprc? -ar lrlun lou se..vl, lL, 'lI lnd ueSrow drueg surral lsrt

    POWER OF THE WITCH tive, was a religion of ecstasy. Archaeological evidence of primal religious experiences-cave drawings, pictures in tombs and on pottery-show human figures with large awestruck eyes, human beings dancing with wild animals, flying with birds, sharing the watery realms with fish and snakes. Religious practices and shamanistic rituals that have survived into our own time among indigenous peoples also indicate ecstatic religious experiences drumming, chanting, reenacting primal cre-dancing, ation myths, and inducing trance. From all the scattered evidence reaching through the centuries, it appears that ecstatic religious experiences were the norm for preChristian cultures. And so they should have been in religions that centered on woman's experience. The Great Coddess and her priestesses were living examples of the integration of body, mind, and spirit. For them there was no dichotomy between mind and body, between spirit and matter. Followers of the Old Religion believe the universe was created in ecstasy out of the body and mind of the Great Mother of all living things. The oldest creation myths from around the world recount the many ways that human beings have perceived this original birth of earth, sky, plants, animals, and the first human coupie. From northwest India we learn about Kufum-Chantu, the Divine Mother, who created the physical landscapes of the earth out of the various parts of her own body. A Pelasgian creation tale from the eastern Mediterranean explains how Euronyme, the Goddess of All Things, danced the earth into existence. From Venezuela comes the story of Puana, the Snake who created Kuma, the first woman, from whom sprang all living things and all the customs of the Yaruros people. A Huron story tells of the Woman Who Fell from the Sky, a divine woman, who with the help of Turtle, began human life on earth. The Fon people in Dahomey, Africa, revere Nan Buluku, the

    -puerD pue rerpuurD rlloq uaql Suorue 'serueu duutu puq ol<,/v 'ratulog pug ra>leerC Luru aql Suoiuv 'n1 'uoruuduroc sq qlr1v uorlBarc Jo >uo1v 1ear3 eql SuruurSeq eroJeq uJoq aq o1 seSe roJ polru.r BorE-EJ araqn '33e leer8 e eprsut ur8 -aq elII o 4reds tsrg aql .roq salEIOr osle erdur uullrquJ v 'quBe eql pelParc oqrrr Sureq lsrg oql ',n uuq4 Surrds luauuoJrlua aururue] srql tuorJ 'uroq lad pu Surql -auros snorralsLru u Surureluoc 33e s,uaq e o adeqs aql uI su,l esralrun eql ,loq o drols uorlraJc erEaJc oqr* 'reqloW leer3

    THE TRIPLE MOON CODDESS In many parts of the world the original

    ferred to as the Great Moon Goddess, a triune deity. She trinity of Maiden, Mother, and Crone. And in many written accounts, as well as in the artwork that has survived, we see this triple nature-sometimes depicted as three faces-reflected in the three phases of the moon. Here, too, the earliest human worshipers understood that one and the same mystery or power operated in both woman and the moon. As |oseph Campbell put it, "The initial observation which gave birth in the mind of man to a mythology of one mystery informing earthly and celestial things was the celestial order of the waxing moon and the earthly order of the womb." So not only was the Goddess reflected in the three phases of the moon, but the biological cycles of every woman found expression there too. Every woman could identify with the Great Goddess by identifying her own bodily transformation with the moon's monthly waxing and waning. A Witch's spells and rituals are always performed in conjunction with the phases of the moon, and female Witches align their magical work with their own menstrual cycles. By observing the three lunar phases and meditating on the Goddess's traditions associated with them, we discover the special powers and mysteries of the moon and the unique wisdom it teaches us about the Divine Mother of the universe. is the great female

    THE lllI.AIDEN The crescent moon, virginal and delicate, grows stronger and brighter each night, appearing

    puu /sleurrue Jo elol aq] /uE Jo eJnllnc e sel dtlurulnq a8y ec1 sn<> ler<> sn ol >no serrc relocsrp arvr Surtured pue anlBls trrarre,, 'selou uosdruoqa ur/rrl UBIIIII uerrol -srq sE 'rerr.ano11 'ueur puu 'relqSnuls 'acualorl o s4eads srelunq a8y ac1 1o 4uads o] pesn dlpuorlrpel oABq sue -Irolslq drerodureluor Jno a8en8uul eql 'dlpcruorl 'spraq elerurtur eq> r*au>I 3qs uBluolv u sB asnEJaq lunq eq] uo ssesf,ns eInssB plnoJ uroq eqt qtl^ uuruonl eqt ter<> se^ poolsrapun dppear aldoad aBV auots lrril ,,'poolsrepun dppear ' ueaq eAEq plno^ uroq pelu^ele eqr Jo eJuoraJar aqt,, lEql u1vou < IIel os sE^ eqs-uBrrrnq dlarau eq>spuacsuBJ> lpq] euoeuos yo a8uurl ss /'3'1-e8euosred cn<>diu B sB IEI Jo uorlBtuasardar parnldlncs dlsnoro8m ]soru er <1,, Jar< slluJ uorpar3 peu3rg uurrol -sII< uB aq1 'qdunu>ur uroq Surlunq aql Surploq enlel 'uroq Surtunq eqt sploq eqs puer< req uI 'spnlrr 3ur -lunq erap ol surBal aqs 'uozeuly ro 'rorrre.&r ueruo/v 1nremod e olur seJnlBlu eqs sV 'sIIueUV puE EUBI(I pellB3 sB,/v elol ssep -poc uBeuBrJalrpew ur or<1v 'ssarlunq puB e>elr<>E luap -uadapur 'arnd aql sl eqs 'dep Surssud qcee qll^ re8uorls SurnorB pr8 Sunod eqt tuasardar ol uooru erls aql ur req8rq pue raq8rq

    THE ltlI'OTHER The full moon, when the night sky is flooded with light, is represented as a mother Goddess, her womb swollen with new life. Witches and magicworkers everywhere have always found this to be a time of great power. It is a time that draws us to sacred places, like the hidden springs and caves that Neolithic women might have used as their original birthing places. In his fascinating study The Great Mother, Erich Neumann suggests, "The earliest sacred precinct of the primordial age was probably that in which the women gave birth." Here women could withdraw into the Great Mother and, in privacy and with fresh running waters nearby, give birth in safety and in a sacred manner. And so down to this day temples, churches, sacred groves, and sanctuaries have a womblike stillness and quality that suggest protection and safety from the world of men, warfare, and disruption. As we enter these places, often lit as by the light of the full moon, we feel born into a more sacred life, and we feel closer to the source of all life. In the mother aspect of the full moon, the Goddess of the Hunt also becomes the Queen of the Harvest, the Great Corn Mother, who bestows her bounty upon the earth. The Romans called her Ceres, from whose name the word cereal is derived. She is the same as the Greek Demeter, a name composed of D, the feminine letter delta, and meter, or "mother." In Asia she was called "the Doorway of the Mysterious Feminine the root from which Heaven and Earth sprang." In America she was the Corn Maiden, who brought maize to nourish the

    people. In all her manifestations she is the source of crops and vegetation that become our food. When she departs in the winter months-as Demeter seeking her daughter Kore in the Underworld-the land lies barren. When she returns in the spring all turns green again. In many Middle Eastern, Mediterranean, and ancient

    er<> Jo irBd orEep ot paldruerl ro paro8 ele,r sretunq LuepsnoreSuep selv IEruruE peuroq a8rel e 3ur1p4 pue Suqplg 'Lrntuac qtuealauru eqt olur dn der* eruus srql uI olugnq e qcuorddu ol 'suroq pue peaq qtlr* alaldruoc 'saqor olegnq peuuop suerpul uecrrauv 'de,,r,re ll Suupcs tnoqlrlv prer < aqr qcuorddu plnoc eq luacs pue adeqs ueur -nq sH Suqearuoc Lg 'sseccns pue Llatrs roJ lsuaq er<>Jo eplq pue suroq dral aql aro^ relunq aqr 'd1pcr3e1ur1g 'lunq InJsseccns P eJnssB ol lqSnoqt selv palunq eql qllr'r. uort?rgrtuepl erIJ 'derd srq o lrnds aq] parpoque eq lderd eqt e4l rq8noql eq rtrrr6 oql errrds puu 'purur 'dpoq ut pe>unq oql elueteq Jelunq aql 'srellue puu suroq eqt Surrearvr Lq 'og 'dltap eql eunq Sunod eqt pagrtuapl pue lerurue aqt o lrrrds eql parouoq sserppBaq pauror < eql lBnlrr sv 'sn<>roJ suos -EeJ IBluauurJes pue cr8elerls eJe,/v aJeqJ 'suroq Surruar* pelrtdep ualo 'po3 relunH e se spua8al uuadorng ur peqsllqBlsa 11arvr l.1nu1 sBlv Jeqlow aur^rc eql Jo uos aqr 'E'3'g 0001 dg 'lruqlsuodser ,selBlu eql auecaq slsuaq p1t1vr eqt 8ulpl pue Suqlurs o qo( snora8uep aq] 'uroq -^eu aql qsunou puB r<]rq arrl8 plnoc deqr dluo ro 'aqrrl aql Jo ISAIAInS eql ol IBIIA ale,/vl ueulolv esnBceg 'Suru8rp surolsnJ Iurcos pue qrdru luarouu pug e,t ereH ,,'arp lsnur poD,, Sunod aql dueu o1 Surproccy 'spua8el luarcuu 'suos u..vor8 eru ueur 11e

    pue 'sraqlour lurtuatod arp uaruon lle ,,'seddl pcrql(ru,, sE leql purru ur daa4 tsnru alr 'sree ulepou ol snonl -saJur puu drolcrpeJluoc punos deur srqt q8noqlly 'aleur puB re^ol Jer< sauoceq otull ur or<1vt ra>unq Sunod B 'uos ol qurq sa,rr8 ssappoD raqlow aql suourperl uuadorng E

    tribe, for he had put his life in danger. In time this hunter-son of the Great Goddess was honored as a Horned God, and his willingness to sacrifice his life for the good of the community was celebrated in song and ritual. The hunter often met his death in the winter months, the season of the hunt when hides were thick with fur and meat was easily preserved in the cold, frosty air. This drama of a winter death was also seen in nature as the winter sun grew faint and weak, and everything appeared dead or sleeping, and when the long winter nights encouraged our Stone Age ancestors to retreat into the warm, womblike darkness of their lodges. It was the season of ice and death. |oseph Campbell tells us rn The Way of the Animal Powers that "the annual disappearances and reappearances of the birds and beasts must also have contributed to this sense of a general time-factored mystery," a mystery that all things have their times to die and be reborn. A religion based on the cycles of nature would make this a sacred truth. Those who followed that religion could celebrate even the season of death because they knew that it was to be followed by a season of rebirth. If the Son must die, he would be reborn, iust as the sun would return in the spring. The Earth and Woman see to it. These were the mysteries of the Creat Mother Goddess, the Great Womb of the Earth. In Britain and northwestern Europe, in Ohio and Mississippi, and in many other parts of the globe, Neolithic farming cultures constructed great earth mounds. According to Sioo and Mor, "the beehive shape of so many Neolithic earth mounds was quite intentional and symbolic. Beekeeping was a metaphor for settled agriculture, and for the peaceful abundance of the earth in those times. And the honeybee was like the full moon, making illumination in the night." Shaped like the full breasts of the Goddess of Milk, shaped like the beehive ruled by

    'uoes 0q u?c ueasun s8uryl qclqrv ur 1vol3 crSBru E Surlsec 'arnleu ur*o s,uooru aq] seJBqs lqql palcegar drele ro 'uooru egl uolsllue sn sdlaq ecrleqo aq] ur pelcelar elpuec a18urs E rO 'elcrrJ e ur Surpuels Lq ecueserd rno orur adrqs 11n s,uoolu eql s8urrq uelof, Lur 'arg aql eJoleq uoor 3urrr.r1 du ur Surlaaur 'sreluuvr puelSug ,taN ploJ er<> ur sroop -ur ue^g '^arq oql olur parrrls aq plnoc rqSll u/vo s,ssep -po3 eqt os uooru IInJ B rod Surmarq roJ pellec slpnlrr luarcuv 'lq8r1uoour ur rur.&s a./v Ja^eueqa sarpoq Jno olur raAod req 11nd e a 'seol puE sra8ug rraqt q8norqt rervrod pelJeger s,uooru aql dn r'rerp ,Beuaq relB,l o lood Lue ro 'e4u1 u rreqt aceld seqr>IIA ueqlA B otur spuer< ro 'puod >eeJ 'uooIII eq] pe^ollBlvs a^Eq I 'elu ulglllv ueql sI sseppoD eq1 ',

    Iae] I 'uooru er<> Jo d8raua puu raru.od eqr >lurrp 1 'dlsnorc -t1ap 'dy*o1g 'lersdrc Jo spreqs e4q 's1red rellurus dueru olur aSerur s,uooru aqt Surralteqs 'ralurvr oqt Surllrlds 'eor -lBr olur ra88ep IBn>rJ Lu a8unld 1 'luaruoru >reJJo3 eql lp 'ttqJ 'uorlJallar JaAIrs s,uoour eql ur ocEJ u1vro dur aas 1 dnc eqr otur aze? I sV 'spuer < ,(ur ur plorl l re>-ervr Suuds JBelc Jo eJrlBrur u1vop rar*od s>r 1vEJp 1 'uooru IInJ eql qlueueq elonJ cr8eru E lsur I ueq/A 'serpoq rleqt u1r

    sJorrrBlv ueruolvo spueSel

    'uaan[ eqt uior] ,(auoq ueplo8 eqt 'sreqloru Jo >llru

    eql-,,deuoq pue 4lrru qtL! Surrvrog spuel,, Jo selul eql sllecer dre8eur a^qaaq eql 'sseppo3 eql 1o d11aq puu slsBeJq percBs eql sB peJouoq aJa,/vl >Eql surBlunou puB sruq aql alqueser 01 reeJD eq>

    some point in every woman's life the menstrual cycle ends. She ceases to bleed with the moon. She retains her blood forever, or so it must have seemed to our ancestors. She holds her power, and so she is power-full. She is an elder. She is the wise old crone. Like

    the waning moon, her body shrinks, her energies wane, she eventually disappears into the dark night of death, iust as the moon disappears for three dark nights. At death her body is replaced into the earth, and at some point she will be reborn, fresh and virginal as the new moon on its first visible night, hanging like a iewel in the western sky at sunset. The Greek Goddess Hecate, Goddess of Night, Death, and Crossroads, embodied this Crone. Her rule during the moon's absence made the night exceptionally dark. The frightened paid her homage during these three nights, seeking her favor and protection. Wherever three roads crossed Hecate could be found, for here life and death were thought to pass each other. Even today Witches will leave cakes at crossroads or in the woods at the dark of the moon to honor her. At death Hecate was said to meet the departed souls and lead them to the Underworld. In Egypt the Dark Moon Goddess was called Heqit, Heket, or Hekat, and she was also the Goddess of midwives, for the power that leads souls into death is the same power that pulls them into life. And so Hecate became known as the Queen of the Witches in the Middle Ages, for the wise old country nurses, versed in the ways of the Goddess, were the midwives. From years of experience they acquired the practical skills for assisting at births and the spiritual insights that could explain the mystery of birth. And so from birth, to puberty, to motherhood, to old age and death, the eternal return of life is intimately bound up in every woman, no matter what phase of her

    -ErdS pur sallrasruw 'ueeuBrtalrpew eq] Jo pua reqto oql lv 'sernllnc ssappoc lBcoJrrl?ru oslE ere^ I<EJ Jo -tuesard) BrlolBuv uI 'eleJ3 uo ot uortezrueSro 1ec lrrln$ puDI B oq ol ater3 uo aJntlnc uuourw s1q8noq> sreloqrs 'o tsrg 'snlBls ssBlf,-puocas pleq dlqurunserd pue luar^rasqns

    POWER OF THE WITCH cuse were Goddess-worshiping centers, and perhaps the most famous of all was at Ephesus in Greece. What were these women-centered, Goddess-worshiping cultures like? Many scholars have noted their strong resemblances to the many European myths and legends about a Golden Age, suggesting that the myths arose as

    latter-day accounts of what had once been reality. The of military fortifications and weaponry indicate that they were peace-loving cultures. There seems to have been no large-scale, organized warfare, only the minor, personal skirmishes and conflicts that arise in any human society. Weapons were small, personal instruments, which suggest they were used primarily for de-

    Goddess centers also lacked a bureaucratic political structure people lived in clanlike extended families run by mothers. There was no slavery. Women functioned as priestesses, artists, agriculturists, and small-game hunters. Food was abundant and supplied by gathering, foraging, hunting, and later small-scale farming. In short, these Neolithic Goddess cultures seem to have laid the seeds for Western thinkers' fascination with Utopia, not as a future possibility, however, but a dream about a reality we have lost. It is not surprising that ancient life centered around mothers. Bloodlines, kinship, and property rights naturally descended through mothers because the motherchild relationship was always paramount. A child always knew its mother. Even after fatherhood was understood mothers and children did not always know who the father was. Matrifocal societies may indeed have had the characteristics of a Golden Age simply because the primary bonding was between children and mothers. As psychiatrist Eric Fromm has pointed out, children must win their father's love, usually by obedience and conformity. A rl

    ol paIIeJeI eje.r puB spunou alrlquo^ elquesar ot ]lrnq dlluuortrpert era^ sualo 'aru Jo reralorsrp 1eu€rro aql Suteq uBluo.lvt. lnoqe spua8al aleq sernllnc eseql o duuru pue 'sarg yo sradaa>1 pue sJeplrnq dreuud ers eru ueuron 'drnluec qlellue,tl eql olur pelrlrns eABq leql sellorcos leqrri rnoJ-drq8re uI 'sorlercos pleurrd ur uorl -JunI IBII^ puu parces e 'sradaa4 arg drerurrd aql dlqeqord aIe,/v ueluolA 'Selllxel olul e^ol! Io IaqlBel uo palutud leql suSrsap aql ueaq e^?q duur lre le slduret -tE tsrs aql Suoruy 'sepFl Suiadp puu Suruuet Jo tre eql puB sllDIs Surnear'r peurBal ueruol Surqlolc apl,rord o1 'senbruqcel a8erols pue'Suruesard'Surssecord peCole,rap eABq plnol! < uorteredard poo>eq> o lred sv 'sall -rpqrsuodser alerua] sder*1e ere^ pooJ 1o uorterudard pur Surraqlu8 eql lurlt alecrpu suolsnc pue sql,(ur IEIcos pue 'pooJ arEcIpuI due arr (up ur*o Jno ur lsrxe llrls leql serlercos Surre -qle8-Surrunq aqi r 'sarlddns poo' oq] lo Eru sBn 'seleurrlc eleradrua> ur dlprcadsa 'uorlezqrlrJ rrr<>rloeN tuqt lsaSSns o> srBloqcs e[uos pal seq drarrocsrp rreqJ 'plrolv er.ll Jo slred raqlo uI seJnllnr lrcorrteu aql Jo elrleluesaJdar aru ueau -BJIelIpew eq] punorB para^oJsrp srelues ssappoc aql 'arn8g uBrJElrJor<>nE ue ot a3uarpaqo uuq> reqlpJ suorl -BIoJ lBrcos peluauec e^Bq plno.r plqc puB raqlou Jo sseulnde1d lernleu aql uoJJ Sursrrr sanlea JrlsruerunH 'pa8ernocsrp JorlurcnJ>sap'lualorl pue'passarls ueaq e^Eq plno,/v aJII IIB Jo sseupalcBs eI

    kind of belly or womb. Woman's role in the ritual maintenance of fire continued down through the centuries, as seen in the vestal virgins of Rome and the Irish nuns of St. Brigid at Kildare, who tended sacred fires until the time of Henry VIII. As fire keepers women would have been in charge of pottery, ceramics, and metallurgy. As the primary gatherers of herbs, grains, nuts, berries, and roots, women would in all likelihood have been the original herbalists and pharmacologists. With their knowledge of medicinal herbs and remedies, women rvere the first official healers and health-care providers. (The World Health Organization relates that 95 percent of all health care even today is provided by women.) Cataloging and explaining to their daughters the various parts of plants, and showing how to prepare them, pointas a

    -Eeru pur raroq suearu 'aldruuxa rc! 'raiDur prow loor uudry eql 'druouoJlsB pue 'scrleuraqluur 'ueurolvr Jo uouceuuo) srql roJ ecuepr^e oql Jo

    uorlrunluoc ur peleur8rro a,rerlaq sffloqcs qrrq./v spleg onl 'druouorlsr puu srrlrrrreqleru Jo srrrJot lsarlrce eql padola,rap ,(eqi 'sqlrrq lcrpard pue 'sarcuuu8ard alelnclBr 'salcdc lenJlsuoru lcurl ot euols Jo poo^/v oluo eurl-uooul paqclou ro p3r.EnI>sueul IoJ sploltl srla?D eqJ 'ssrpoq u^o r0q1 uI palseJiuBru oslB r<>uoiu qJEe uoou eql uI palsaJIuBIII oq./v sseppoD 3q1 lBql uortBorpur ue-uoueruouaqd errrBs eql 1o stcedsu 1a11e -rrd Sureq sp olvu er<> pogr>uapr uele dlqeqord ,(aq1 'or*r aql ueealaq uor]reuuoc Suorls aql Surcrlou padecse elrq lou plnon ueruolvr 3rrq3ll IBIOgIUB uror dervru aAII ueuo^ ueq./v depol op IIIIS pur-selcdc rBunl ly1ollot salcl.c lBnJlsuetu ecurs 'sarull urapou olut dn sEcIJeIuV aql ur aldoad pqur dq pasn osle arerw deql 'edor -na ssoJcB salrs cII <>eqt uo pesuq sJepualec Jeunl aJe,t srepuelBc lsarlree erou plnoa ernl)nrls ecuelues pue drelnqucol acuaH 'uorleru -roJuio SuiSolerBc pue Suurclep snoln3rlau qcns parrnb -er aaerl lou plnoa 'uorlcun (reurud s,eletu aq] 'auu8 e8rul Surlunr< >Eqt >no >urod droeql slqr rsaSSns oqrvr slsrSolodorqluv 'lI /!oDI a,r sB a8unSuelo tuaudolalap eql ol pel rBql uorlBsrunurruos ]o luauaugal ar

    surement. We see it in such English words as maternal, matron, matrix, metric, and material. In Chaldea astrologers were called "mathematici," or "learned mothers." Many of these terms begin with the syllable ma which seems to be a worldwide root for words meaning

    "mother." If women and women's mysteries inspired astrology and calendrical sciences, then women's influence was most likely the inspiration for the stone circles and megalithic structures that were built all over the globe. Many of these were laid out to mark the passage of time by means of celestial events such as the appearance of certain constellations in the sky at appointed times of the year or the rising of the sun at the summer and winter solstices. In other words, Stonehenge and Avebury in the British Isles, and their counterparts in other areas of the world, were huge astronomical observatories. One of the most recently discovered examples is an Irish tomb outside Dublin built in alignment with the rising sun at the winter solstice so that the first rays at dawn on December 2l enter a small slit in the roof of the tomb and throw pools of light which illuminate designs carved on the floor in the inner chamber. This old Celtic tomb, erected 5,150 years ago, is older than Stonehenge and the pyramids.

    In many of these stone circles, or "medicine wheels" as they are called in Native America, sacred rituals were performed in conjunction with solar, lunar, and stellar sightings. Even today astonishingly accurate observations can be made, using these structures even though the stones themselves look crude and clumsy. The mathematical precision with which they were laid out and constructed clearly indicates that these old tribespeople were sophisticated engineers and geometricians. It also indicates that they felt a powerful need to construct, by means of their own physical labor, earth structures that

    of milk-and the clocking of these experiences formed and shaped our ancestors' conceptions of time. And the way a people measure time determines the timing and nature of their important social activities and rituals which become the foundation for civilization. For these reasons, it is suggested by many scholars that women were the real culture bearers and founders of civilization in these prehistoric times.

    Witches practice many of the same arts and skills that lie at the base of human culture and were once considered sacred to the Goddess. As we cook, sew, brew potions, prepare herbs, build fires, collect healing stones, set up altars, read the omens in the movements of earth and sky, perform healing rituals for the sick, we recite the prayers and chants that we hope are similar to those chanted by our Neolithic grandmothers. We continue to use the old names for the Goddess. In Crete, the place where Goddess culture flowered for the last time in all its purity, were worshiped the famous Greek Goddesses-all aspects of the one Goddess-whose names touch something deep and sacred in our unconscious, names that we invoke in many of our rituals: Aphrodite, Athene, Demeter, Persephone, Artemis, Hecate. Witches continue to honor the Great Goddess depicted in Cretan art as the Lady of the Beasts, the Lady in tune with the wild things of nature, the Lady who can pick up serpents and channel energy from the sky and the earth, the Lady who knows the secrets of herbs and plants. The sacred-bull rituals of Crete continue to inspire Witches' understanding of the Horned God. The sacred marriage between the Goddess and her Son, representing the sacredness of life in the eternal union of male and female, finds symbolic representation in our coven circles. Although modern Witches no longer practice sexual rites in mixed covens of men and women, the ancient

    sB/v lr esneceq rouoq lBrceds ur eeJ] >lBo oql pleq sllef, eql Jo sasselsorJd puB slsarJd plruc erl are larnb puu acuad l>1co1 rapun sr uodearvr dre.r,a /surrB JEa/v ro alltuq ol oB ]ou op deql 'oB or su8tep eqs JaleJar <,tr su8rar dlr,rrtsal puu 'Surcro(ar o uos 'erE3 rsrl ur suorlBu eq] slrsr^ puB srrBUE -Bes B sr ]I ' uBrunq ur seua^ralur eqs lBr<>Jerleq eq> puB spoD eql ]o raqlow eq] Jo drqsrorvr uoruruoc E eAErI saqul [rl]laf,l erll IIE,, lBq] pelou snlrf,Pl uBuolsrq uBruou eqJ 'suorlrpErl uBrcqcllla ueedornE aql Jo sur8rro arBIuroJsuEJl puu IEArArns slr ur puu 'pa.rr.r,rrns uor8tleg plg aql seqlJl JIrleJ eql Suoury 'secrlcerd puB sJerlaq lenlrnds Surcua -nllur esoql puB ueluo./t Jo sruBls pu8 0lor eql ol palslar esoqr dllercodsa 'petsrsrad sl'er*>iloJ pue sruotsnc IBqcrE -rJleru aql Jo (ueur ]ng 'snelc .nor8 11rrvr nod 'reaq B ]qBS ol a^Eq nod r reql a8epu plo eql Jo qlnrt eql Surlord 'erurun pazruu8ro Surldope olur parnssard araa'r s11a3 eqt 'saldoed sseppo3 rorlrea a4r1 'endrug uBruog eql Suraq 1nrar'rod lsotu eql 'ueql punoJe uesrru per< salrls leqcrerned elrlsoq 'drolsrq ur peprocal are serlarJos Jrlla3 etull eql dg 'luaurluoc uuadornA eql uo lsaSuol aql palrl -rns serlarcos lecoJrJleru puu dlrlenlrrrds sseppo3 ereql 'adorng uralsalquou ]o sereJ crtle3 erll or 4cuq oB 'e8eluaq dlnue du se IIel sE 'suorlrperl ler3 umo dy11

    SJT[f, !IHJ 'oJrl /veu ecnpord leqt 'eurrrrp pue uerrrnq ef,uo le 'sar8reua 1ryra.trod aql purur ol IIEJ leql drlaod puu dra8urul qtlr' sn aprlord ol enurtuoc pue8el puB uE ur petcrdep sredrqsror*. ssappoC Jo slJB lenxas

    sacred to the Goddess Dana. The Celts who settled

    British Isles were called the Tuatha de Danann, or "people of the Goddess Dana," a northern European variation of Diana, who was worshiped in groves of sacred oaks. In Celtic societies hereditary monarchies were matrilineal. Temporary male chieftains were elected. Women served as lawyers, judges, sages, physicians, and poets. Boys and girls studied together in the academies the teachers were usually women. Women held the balance of power in tribai councils and often led armies into battle. In fact the proper training of male warriors included instruction by the famous women warriors of the day whose heroic reputations were won by their valor and bravery in battle. The great Irish hero Cu Chulainn, for example, studied for a year and a day with the warriorgoddess Skatha. Women taught the magical and sacred arts as well as the military. According to some traditions, Merlin learned his skills from the Goddess in the guise of the Lady of the Lake, or Viviane (She Who Lives). As Morgan le Fay, she was turned into an evil sorceress by Christian writers who hoped to discredit the Celtic belief in Merlin. From Roman observors we derive an interesting picture of the importance women played. The Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus wrote that "a whole troop of foreigners would not be able to withstand a single Gaul [Celt] if he called his wife to his assistance, who is usually very strong, and with blue eyes." |ulius Caesar noted that "the matrons decide when troops should attack and when withdraw." Women's dominance in society and military matters allowed Roman generals to use the Celtic male egos as military strategy. According to Tacitus, on one occasion the Romans gave the Celtic armies their choice of submitting to Rome or remaining independent under the rule of Celtic women. "The lower classes murmured that if [they] must choose between

    ueruolv rpueqsnq rar< Jo luepuedepur slcerluoc 1e3a1 e>lBru plnoJ uBruolv e rureql qlrl lue^ lBql sellB eql puB salBlse llJaqul plnos ueluo..v tllla] 'ueluo.&r Jo snlels oql olur iqSrsur palrulep apvrord 'sarurl crrolsrqard ruor dlarcos cplef, r

    could appear in court and bring suits against men a woman could choose her husband (most neighboring peoples allowed only the male to select a wife) women did not legally become part of the husband's family husbands and wives enfoyed equal status in marriage rnarriages lasted for a year, at which time they could be renewed if mutually agreed upon divorce required mutual consent, daughters inherited equally with sons. A divorced woman retained her property, plus the dowry, which in the Brehon legal system was required of both the husband and wife (it usuaily consisted of oxen, horses, shield, lance, and swords). The wife could also demand from one third to one half of her husband's wealth. Sex was not viewed in rigid moralistic terms: a woman was not " gtllty" of adultery if she had sexual relations outside of marriage male homosexuality was common and accepted, especially among warriors. The Christian church challenged these laws and many other Celtic customs regarding women, in particular the right to divorce, inherit property, bear arms, and be physi cians.

    The chief priests and priestesses of the Celts were the Druids. The word druid is related to the Greek dryad, a "nature spirit" or "oak nymph." The term was also applied to priestesses of Artemis, the Moon Goddess, called the Mother of All Creatures. One of her popular manifestations was as the great Bear Mother. (Artemis's Saxon name was lJrsel, the Bear, later assimilated into Christian mythology as St. Ursula.) The Celtic Druids and the Greek dryads were two phases of a long spiritual tradition among European peoples. Originally the priesthood was all female later males were admitted. Druidical knowledge was taught orally and consequently there are no written accounts of their exact teachings, but contemporary scholarship suggests that there is a virtually unbroken line of magical practices from the early dryad

    Zeus, Thor, |upiter, |ove, |ehovah-Sky Gods reigning

    with the power of the sun, challenging the older Godof earth and moon: Ceres, Cybele, Athene, Diana, Artemis, Tiamat, Anat, Isis, Ishtar, Astarte, Minerva, desses

    The solar Gods became the heroes and the earth and moon Coddesses became the villains, and many of the old tales were rewritten and revised to reflect this shift in consciousness. In many of them the Goddess-or the feminine power-is identified with a serpent or dragon, both of which represent the primal powers of the earth and the watery regions subject to the pull and tug of the moon. In the new patriarchal religions these serpents and dragons are always presented as evil. Marduke slays Tiamat, Indra kills Danu and her son Vrta, Apollo slays Gaia's Python, Perseus decapitates Medusa with her serpentine hair. These stories persist even into Christian times, where we find St. George slaying the dragon in England and St. Patrick driving the snakes from Ireland. Sacred mythology began to reflect a dualism that was probably unknown in Neolithic times or that was certainly relegated to a minor role in the scheme of things. Sun and Sky opposed to Earth and Moon, Light opposed to Dark, Life opposed to Death, Male opposed to Female. Earlier, all things were part of the Great Mother, including the power to destroy, the mystery of death, and the darkness of night. Polarities were not viewed in moral terms. It was not a question of good versus evil. Each had positive and negative aspects, all necessary ingredients in the Great Wheel of Created Life. Death, for example, although it always elicits a certain fear of the unknown, was a vital part of creation. It was not "the wages of sin" or a curse for disobedience. Native Americans retained this healthy notion of death as part of the Great Circle of Life even into our own times, as expressed in the saying that "Today is a good day to die." This attitude totally

    selels palrun eql puB serrBuorssrru leqcreuled peHBq

    God." Witches find it interesting that the name |ehovah is formed by the four Hebrew letters Yod-He-Vau-He. The frtst, Yod, means "I," the next three, He-Vau-He, mean both "life" and "woman." The Latin version of these

    three letters is E-V-E. In other words, the name of |ehovah is feminine and it means "I am wornarr I am life." Today a popular chant among Witches is based on these ancient letters: "Io! Evohe!" As mythologies drifted further and further away from the original religious view of the Great Goddess, the dualism that has come to dominate so much of Western thinking grew stronger and stronger. Life was seen primarily as a struggle between the forces of good and the forces of evil, rather than a dynamic dance of all things working together for the good. Life on earth became less important than the life to come. Everything associated with this life-earth, the body, sex, woman-became suspect if not outright evil. The folk saying that "Cleanliness is next to Godliness" sums it up quite well: Earthiness is to be rejected as a religious concept, it is dirty and impure. Woman is to be rejected as a spiritual leader who reflects the image of the divine Feminine. She is dirty and impure. A curious thing happened to the male gods as they consolidated their hold over the human imagination. Although a few retained their shapeshifting power, most gradually lost their animal identities. We find only a few gods retaining the heads of animals and birds, such as Anubis, the iackal-headed God of Egypt, and the eagleheaded genie carved in a ninth-century palace in Mesopotamia. In the fewish, Christian, and Muslim traditions, the male God also lost any hint of androgyny. In time God became completely human and completely male. As we will see in the chapter on Witchcraft as a science, this inability to shapeshift and transform oneself runs contrary to the nature of reality. The ability to transform

    -nluluoc uerunquou erll pue 'slenxasotuoq 'ueruorw 'uer -pFIc :eleru u?un < 't1npe '1nrer*od-1le eqt o a8eurr eql lEt lou op oqlvr asoql sserddo dlqulrleul poD reqlBJ uur -Julrroqln? uE Jo uorlou eql punon dola,rap leq] sarnllnc 'aroturaqlrng 'c1e 's1ce(qo InJasn pue slool 8ur1erc 'sra1 -1eqs Surppnq 'poo Surssacord pue Surtcallo3 . <>IEJn>Eu lsotu pup 'xas 'l.poq aql 'uuruor'r 'qlrre eql Jo uorleper8ep eql eruec spoD Jar<> -E < Jo IEArrrE aq>q>llA 'uortBzrlrlrc SurcuerrpB Jo >lreru E se^-uroJ alqrxagur'pr3rr st1 ur-8ur4urql cllsreqlouotu Jo IEAITJE er.<> >Ersenb ,(1q8q st >t 'puoceg 'drrap apu'1nre,r,t,od -llB euo 1sn( ur JaIIaq ,,ralleq,, e ot spo8 dueu uI JoII -eq aarru eruos ruoJJ sserSord ]ou saop rq8noqr snot8rlar o drolsrq aql sprolr raqlo uI 'spo8 rassal eqt Supnlcut 'Sutqldrala pulqaq sarl leql eJJoJ ro rar*od aurllp etuos ro 'raqto141-llv ro reqlu<-llv ro lrrrdg tBarD B ur Jerlaq Surprqe pue Suorls e uretal po8 auo ueql erou Jouoq ]Erlnc lsou >cBJ uI '8urag eruerdng B ur Jerlaq e apnlcerd tou seop spo8 dueru ur 1orleq e 'drnluec sn<> ur dlrea pervroqs urpEu 1ne4 lsrSolodorqlue se '1srrg 'slunoc olvU uo 3uor.l^ erarvr deqt 'la,re,rog 'po8 eluur 'e13urs B Jo ro^EJ ur sesseppo8 pue spo8 duetu ur Surrrerleq dols ot lueudola,rap uerunq o u8rs u sen U pres deql 'uorlezrl -rlrc pecuelpu ]o >lrrru E selr rusreqlouoru ol uisreqldlod IUoJJ uorlnlole aq] luql pen8rp senlpl luqcrurrlud uno rleqt Jo lq8rl ur lsed aql palardrelur oqr* uor8rler Jo sue -uolsrq eturl euo lV 'sarrulnJ rurlsnw puu 'uerlsrrrI1v auo sI poC asnmaq 's8uraq pelBerc uele 's8uraq Jerl IO^ol lenlrnds eq> uO 'salerado asral -run eql durvr aql sr 'Esrel ecrl puu 'relleru olur d8reua

    nities of animal, plant, and mineral life with which we live and share our planet. In rigid patriarchal thinking these have no value in themselves except as they serve the male-dominated institutions, They are valuable only as far as they can be exploited for patriarchal purposes. What were the original patriarchal purposes? In what web of events did patriarchy originate? Goddess cultures thrived in warm, temperate climates where animal and plant life was abundant. Everyone had relatively equal access to the resources of life, and there was no need to create institutions of power or to submit to them for survival. Early European history recounts that these Goddess cultures were invaded by lighterskinned, fairer-haired peoples from colder, harsher climates to the north. These Aryan invaders worshiped male Sky Gods or Thunder Gods, who usually resided on mountaintops, aloof from the inhospitable earth, as the invaders perceived it. Historians have described several waves of these Aryan invasions in India, the Middle East, Egypt, Greece, and Crete. Most occurred between 2500 and 1500 B.C.E., the same era when the sacred myths were being revised. Why did they come? In less hospitable climates there was a greater incentive to acquire and stockpile food and resources. Survival depended on it. Groups that lacked the necessities of life raided other more fortunate settlements and took what they needed by force. In time this gave rise to a warrior class, and warfare became an essential institution for survival and growth in a way that it was not in the warmer cultures to the south. Interestingly, the patriarchal raids from the north coincided with important developments in metallurgy. Although exact dates aren't known, historians surmise that around 2500 B.C.E. the patriarchal Hittites developed the technology to smelt iron. From the Stone Age to the Bronze Age, weapons were simple and crude-axes,

    'a1uur-1p aqr pue 'senlel crlsrJBlrlru 'lualou uo peseq orea aIEJrBn puno,B pezrue8ro sarleroos tr.Tlliiil:$",

    warrior ethic-and way of life-was legitimized by the pronouncements of a single, jealous, warlike Father God. Authoritarianism, discipline, competition, notions of "might makes right," "to the victor belong the spoils," and severe punishment for deviant behavior became mainstays in the male ethos. Since the Bronze Age these values have characterized Western politics, religion, economics, education, and family life. Ironically, since the patriarchal revolution of the Bronze Age coincided with written history, it appears that this is the way things have always been. But patriarchy is a rather recent development over the last four thousand years. It is still a new experiment when compared with the hundreds of thousands of years that human beings have lived in matriarchal societies. And a mere drop in the bucket compared to the 3.5 biliion years that other forms of life have existed on the planet.

    POWER OF THE WITCH "bear false witness against his neighbor." I was his neighbor on the program and he was making false statements about me. Finally, in desperation, and to lighten a rather tense exchange with a bit of humor, I turned to him and said, "You should be glad I'm not a bad Witch or you'd be in a lot of trouble right now." It baffied me how he could continue to antagonize me if he really believed that I had the power and will to inflict harm on him. He replied very glibly, "My fesus will protect me." So that was it, a showdown to see who had more power, me or "his |esus." What the minister never realized is that because I am a Witch, I can parry attacks without attacking back. I can protect myself and neutralize the harm that he would do without inflicting harm on him. In fact the Witches' law states that if a Witch does harm, it returns to her threefold. I think the difference between the minister and me is that he would do me harm given the chance. He was, in fact, inciting the audience to mistrust and fear me. This closed-mindedness reaches every corner of our society. I do not deny that Witches are human and consequently capable of harm, fust as Christians, Muslims, and |ews are capable of harm. Anyone's talents or skills can be perverted and used for the wrong purposes, but most Witches do not misuse their powers. Furthermore, Witches have the power to neutralize their enemies in ways that will not do the enemy harm. If the patriarchal religions of Christianity, Islam, and |udaism taught their peoples how to counteract evil without doing harm in return, without taking up the sword and brandishing nuclear weapons, for example, there would be a lot less violence and bloodshed in the world today and Western history might not have been the depressing story of war and persecution that it is. But unfortunately the man who attacked me on the show follows a long line of Witch hunters, inquisitors,

    crlqnd ur seuecs ra8uptu dn Surllnd relo (rlunoc eql punorB su..vot ]uerasrp ur ldnre lBr<> selqqBnbs 1uco1 aql lseralul lear8 qlrm qctu^r l lr-at<. qcEA 'uortruSocar crlqnd IuoU seqclllA pue sr*a< Surpnpxe snqt 'd1uo serulsuq3 sE uosBes ,ua,r Ircunof, s,rodBru aql 'relenoq 'dlluacey 'rra( eqlo rq3ru lsa8uol eql 'actlslos relur..v er Jo drats(ur qlrBe luercuu aql Surlerqalec are suor8rlar eerql IIB eculs 'urwol punoru srq8rl SurSuuls raqlaSol peoq pepnlour >Ersrrl JI se-apr>aln lB sn seJouSr puu uee./volleH lE sn slroldxa dlarcos 'pu1qeq reqlrnJ uale sr UerJqJtrlA 'slelrdsoq pue 'suosrrd 'slooqrs ur paldacce secrlcerd snor8rlar rraql le8 o1 3ur13 -3nrls IIIIs are daql depor uela puu 'suucrraruy aArlBN roJ 1cr uo€r1er Jo uropaarJ aql peu8rs reue3 tueprserd tBql o8e sruad ueerJg dluo servr t1 'suor8rler ruBerlsurBru or 'suezrlrc slr >o >soru sJego dlercos uucrrauv leq] stuopeerJ pue siq8rr eqt IIe ro< 'pJo/vs eql u/rop tnd ol '>1eeqo Jeqlo eql ujn] o1 'sreqlo qrrivr. d11nacuad elrl ol su,l e8esseur osoq.M uuru e o s8utqcual aqt acrlcerd ,(lpasoddns oq/v srapeel snor8 -rler roJ rql se q8rq su e8uer euos 'parp aldoad duuur r*oq dllcrxa 'aslnoc o selBrurlsa

    el ) 'serrnluac qluaeluelas

    I eql uorJ adornE uratsa ur aldoad uo JoJ alqrsuodsar erefi oq,/v sJeuorlntexa puB 'srernuol 'sa8pn(


    Why can't our nation admit that it is a pluralistic iociety and provide space and money so that people of all faiths can celebrate their sacred days publicly without fear of reprisal from narrow-minded hate groups? In many cases peopie are well-meaning but uneducated iust don't know the facts. In other cases, how-they ever, people are guilty of outright bigotry, which I define *illfil ignorance: they choose not to listen to the ^t facts, or listening to them, they refuse to accept them' They blind themselves they turn their hearts and minds to stone. They don't want to know the truth because it might upset their preiudices, which bolster their own miiguided positions. They appear on nationwide teievision and ra-dio talk shows to slander us. Our civil rights

    should safeguard us against such slander. The truth about European Witchcraft has not been well told until very recent times. With the repeai of the anti-Witchcraft laws at mid-century, the resurgence of interest in the Craft, and the personai accounts and studies that have been pubiished by courageous writers in the Craft, the truth is finally getting out. When the first books written by Craft members appeared in the 1950s, some Witches felt that the age-old tradition of secrecy and silence had been violated' It's true that Witches practiced in secret and kept their activities and identities They were, after all, frightened. But I feel that so much has changed in our century, so much is now open and above ground in so many walks of life, that we would be letting a golden opportunity slip by were we not to speak openly and clearly about who we are and what we do. We must inform society about the truth of the Craft we need to erase the gray area of myth and misconception that allows our detractors to say whatever they please about us. Although vows of secrecy were necessary in the past for individual Witches and covens to survive, they made it worse in the long run. No one

    oq/vl asoql Jo srEa eqt uo IIei 1l sE lng,,'sneu poo8,, eq] pelleJ deqr ruqm paqcuard 'uorlcalord rreql repun 'pue serrolrJrel aql olur senuJB ueruoU pelolloj sdoqsrg 'errdua eqr Jo uor8rlar IErrIUo eql aruucaq drlurlrslrrlf, 'aurlurlsuo3 repun 'socroJ pauro( endug ueruo5 aql pue qornqc eql uar<^, Lrnluac q>JnoJ arEu -Irulno dqcreute4 'raldeqc snorlerd aqt ur lB pelnc rno ur paurrr8ur os euoreq ]l plp ./voq puy 2u€aq qctrlA ar prp /roH 1o a8urur e,rrle8au

    DNINUNfl EHI 'ure8u uadduq releu lplvr serurJ Sururng aq] puv 'aru (eql teq^r ro] serl aqt azruSocar 1p*r deqr 'qlnu eqt reaq aldoed IEer uaq./v ]Eql sI edoq dw.tueqt uodn tce pue serl esoq] elorlaq ot eperu aru aldoad IBer Jr dluo sn Sulllp < dprsnt ol pasn eq uec serl 'tlrnq are.n serura 8ur -uJng eql r<3rruv uodn serl eql e^erlaq o>peurlsur ssal eq lll1rr aldoad tBql os u,rouI sr sn lnoqB r eql p uedduq ot d1e4t1 ssel qcnu sr lr Iurql 1 tnq 'ure8e uaddrq plnor Sutqrduu esoddns I 'sa1 :sr ler<> ol Ja./vrsur dpure8r uaddeq plnoJ serurJ Sururng eqt asnuoeq sleroes pelluc -os rno IEeAer Jo sellesrno drluepr rou plnoqs a,l leql sr sreqrueru ryEJJ ruoJJ uale reeq I lBql luarun8ru uy 'ep1q ol Surqlou ro 4uads lsnru eiA 'ure8e o^Bq elA 'sallesrno tnoqe puu

    uaddrq ler<> ral >,uuc qlA 'sn petur < oqrn asoq>pue sn 1vouI rou prp or <. esoq>>dacxa sn >noqB Jo sn Jo> alods

    POWER OF THE WITCH worshiped in the Old Ways of their ancestors, it was hardly good news. The history of Christianity is the history of persecution. Christian forces have consistently harassed, persecuted, tortured, and put to death people whose spirituality differed from their own-Pagans, |ews, Muslims. Even groups within the Christian community itself, such as the Waldensians and Albigensians, suffered under the strong arm of the church.Any group or individual whom the ecclesiastical authorities branded a heretic could be tried and executed. As Christianity spread around the giobe indigenous peoples who stood in its way or disagreed with its teachings were accused of devil worship. We find this argument iustifying the persecution of native peoples in Europe as well as in the Americas, Africa, Polynesia, the Orient, and within the Artic Circle. Christian armies and clergy, blinded by a patriarchal and monotheistic worldview, have seldom understood the value of spiritual paths different from their own. They have repeatedly failed to see the sacred wisdom in other cultural traditions based on difierent perceptions of the divine power. In many instances they have not even bothered to look for it. They have showed no compassion, understanding, or tolerance for native pantheons. When Constantine made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire in the fourth century, the war against native religions commenced in earnest. Sacred shrines were sacked and looted, springs and wells polluted, priests and priestesses discredited or executed. The first Christian emperor himself embodied the fierce violence that in time would be directed against Witches. He boiled his wife alive, murdered both his son and his brother-in-law, and whipped a nephew to death. During his rule the seeds were sown for the political-militaryecclesiastical establishment that would dominate medi-

    srr dq pepullq 'soqle alBru eqt 'a1dls prouered pue aruerl -xe slr ur 'l.1ure1reJ ,,'uolqezrlrlrc uurunq Jo uorlezrurl -ncseru lenper8 eq],, sB.1vt 's(rs aq 'uorluzqrlrc o Lrol -sF< eqJ 'iuEU olio 'uaqi qrlm pear8e aAEr< suBrJol -slq clloqluJ-uou l'uupuorlBzrlrlro uJalse/A roJ ,,>lceq -les IEIoIU E sBlv IuopuelslIq] IeAaryaw,, lBgl ualllI..v eAEr< >uBrnq druy11 pue III/A suerro>srq palcedser aq1 'lnos B Sur,ruq 1ou dlqrssod puu 'po3 Jo e8eurr aql ur apetu lou 'ele1s B Jo uoqrsod (1mo1 eql ot s8uql 8urlr1 IIV Jo reqlow pur ssappoC leerS orcag -er IBrnlEu e Sureq tuorJ IIaJ uuruolvt 'sreqle qcJnr ruor ureld st lI 'po3 o e8eurr eql ur aperrr sr 'uBruorv lou lnq 'uBIN,, :drnluac qrlla,lu oql Jo redrvrel uouuc e 'uer1ur3 dq raqrrn perJJBf, splv ]uerun8ru snorueul slriJ ,,'dpoq req Jo sB IIea sE puru raq Jo sssu>lBe^ eql Jo asnBceq uetu ol lcelqns sr uBrrrolA 'eouelsruncJro ]o s1vBI aql dq dluo aAEIs E 1nq 'ernleu Jo s./vEI eql Jo osneceq uorlca( -qns ur sr ueluo71,, 'elorrn eH 'seAEIs e>lrl uouo./v Surlearl roJ elBuorler E pelcnJlsuoc sBurnby suruoqa 'lg 'ra1e1 'aruof,

    POWER OF THE WITCH own patriarchal values, has run rampant in its subjection of half the human race and in its desecration of the earth and its resources. Christendom did not become the dominant faith overnight, and for centuries the Old Religion and Christianity coexisted. In 500 C.E. the Franks' Salic law made it legal to practice magic. A law promulgated in 643 made it illegal to burn a person for practicing magic, and in 785 the church Synod of Paderborn set the penalty of death for burning a Witch. For a while it appears that not only did the church not fear Witchcraft, it didn't even take it seriously. The Canon Episcopi declared that Witchcraft was a delusion and it was a heresy to believe in it. But by the time of the Reformation attitudes had changed. Both John Calvin and |ohn Knox claimed that to deny Witchcraft was to deny the authority of the Bible, and |ohn Wesley stated, "The giving up of Witchcraft is in effect the giving up of the Bible." Clearly Witchcraft was here to stay-Christendom needed it to preserve the integrity of the Bible. For a long time the Christians, too, practiced magic. St. ferome, for example, preached that a sapphire amulet "procures favor with princes, pacifies enemies, and obtains freedom from captivity." And he didn't mean that it could be used as money to buy these favors! Pope Urban V promoted a cake of wax called the Agnus Dei, or Lamb of God, which protected against harm from lightning, fire, and water. (I'm not sure how it was used.) The church routinely sold charms to prevent disease and enhance sexual potency. From the seventh to the fifteenth century church literature discussed the widespread belief that a priest could cause death by saying the Mass for the Dead against a living person. Presumably some priests actually performed this black magic. Until a late date both civil and church authorities used Witches to raise thunderstorms during battle if a good rousing tempest

    'sa8pn( 's8ur4 'se1qo51 'ssoursnq 3rq servr Surlunq-qclr11 ,,'ernln] slr Jo urBlrecun os eq plnoqs srno su uoqnlrlsur ue drelnlus os letll,, 'elorlvr aq ,,' p sI lL, 'r<>eap of tnd uaeq per< scr>ereq qcu aqt IIE >Br Jepun paqsrlqnd ararvr dracros uo sod elol pue 'uorleurlrp '8urrn(uoc operu selerf Jo IrJunoJ eql 'alduuxo roJ '0IgI uI 'cr3eru pue dracros uae^u -eq qsrn8urtslp ot ue8eq suurlsurl] eqr dlenper8 lnfl 'srelarlefl plo Jo ste4cod Suorls ereivr ereqt adorng tnoq8norql 'aldoad eqr Jo slerleq puu sruolsnr >llot eq1 ut pasrel seuo asuvt puu 'steas 'sarr.rlvtprtu 'sesrnu 'srepaq se suorlrsod pelcedser ploq o] penurluoo soqJiI/A 'qctnqc aql ulqtl^ eldoad euros dq uarr.a 'papre8ar dlqerorrey uaoq eABq ol sueas crSeru sread o Jeqrunu E Jo] oS 'sJoAEJ lerceds ro uorlcelord ro pesn sr leql tca(qo pesselq due pue alrqouolne JoJ senlels 'scrler 'ra1 'spreoqqsup -e.,* dloq 'spparu uroJ ar<> ur plron aql punore punoJ aq uBc cr8eur uerlsrJqO 'o Jo slueuruer depot ueAA '>Iro,lr ol rervrod ,sarlJlr/a eqt paMoID poc lBqr Surdus dq slql paureldxe srar1>EJ r<>


    bishops, local priests/ courts/ townships, magistrates, and bureaucratic clerks at all levels, not to mention the actual Witch-hunters, inquisitors, torturers, and executioners, profited by the industry. Everyone received a share of the property and riches of the condemned heretics. Should such a "salutary" institution go out of business? Pope fohn XXII thought not. He mandated that the Inquisition could prosecute anyone who performed magic. Soon inquisitors were finding magic-workers everywhere. The entire population of Navarre in France was suspected of being Witches! The word Witch has meant different things to different people in different periods of history. One of its acquired meanings in the late Middle Ages was "woman." Especially any woman who criticized the patriarchal policies of the Christian church. In the fourteenth century, for example, women who belonged to the Reforming Franciscans were burned at the stake for Witchcraft and heresy. Church literature grew increasingly strident in its teaching that women were a threat to the community because they knew magic. Over the years the campaign worked: In the popular mind women who knew the ways of the Craft were considered evil. The single most influential piece of propaganda in this campaign was commissioned by Pope Innocent VIII in 1484 after he declared Witchcraft to be a heresy. He instructed the Dominican monks Heinrich Kraemer and facob Sprenger to publish a manual for Witch-hunters. Two years later the work appeared with the title MaIIeus malificarum, or "The Witches' Hammer." The manual was used for the next 250 years in the church's attempt to destroy the Old Religion of Western Europe, demean women healers and spiritual leaders, and to create divisiveness in local communities in order to strengthen the political and economic factions that the church supported (and that in turn supported the church).

    Iplvr ereql Uurcqclrlvr erou aql 'aru araql ueluo,l erolu er pau >o sJa>rJ,ry arEu -iuepuoo rroqt q euolB tou are,t d8relc uBrtsrrq3 aqJ ,,'duraua laJcas pue SuqpaerBql spro,/v rroql ur dn peuurns sr lnoqB epueSedord s,reSuardS puB reruoBJ)I 'uoqs


    POWER OF THE WITCH were said to worship the devil to steal the Eucharist and crucifixes from Catholic churches to blaspheme and pervert Christian practices to ride on goats. Kraemer and

    Sprenger even used the same descriptions for Witches that had been used for fews: horns, tails, and claws-i.e., the stylized images that artists had devised to depict the Christian devil. The motives that orchestrated and precipitated participation in the Witch-hunts were a tangled web of fears, suspicions, and sadistic fantasies. It's not always easy to discern logic or reason. But we can start with one of the major problems that church leaders faced regarding their conquest of European communities: it was never complete.

    Throughout Europe there were people who continued to worship the old Gods in the old ways. The church's frustration over this led it to destroy sacred trees and groves, pollute healing wells and springs, and build their own churches and cathedrals on ancient power spots where people had communed with spirits and deities since Neolithic times. Even today many churches and Christian sites, such as Lourdes, Fatima, and Chartres, are

    built on sites that were sacred to the Goddess and the old Gods throughout history. They will probably continue to be places of power and inspiration long after the Christian churches disappear. In many churches and cathedrals in Europe I was happy to find images of imps and dwarfs, the little people of Celtic lore, that the pagan artisans chiseled into the stonework to honor our ancestors. The little people are still there. Their power is still present. I have felt it. Where people continued to worship and live in the old ways sacred to the Goddess, church leaders whipped up fears and fantasies about their arch nemesis, Satan. They did this by twisting and distorting the time-honored archetypal images of divinity, namely that of the Great

    aruocoq ser< /suroql Jo u,/voJc srq q>r.t 'snsa < '1no palurod qoue e^Er< olletrew oef 'rC puu der3 'D TUEIIIIIA sE puv 'rolBl pue qt8uarls Jo loqtu,(s e su ftntuec qtuealrno eqr ol dn slauileq rB,lt, uErlElI pue 'ueruog '4ear3 uo pesn osls eJel! suJoH ,,'suJocrun Jo suJor< aql 0e>Irl sr dro13,, s,sasow lBqt sn s11e1 duouorelna6l '(so1eq e4r1 qcnu) ueql ruorJ solerper tBql a8palaou>l eur^rp puE ruopsr./v yo rq311 eql Jo uortetuasarder lecrsdqd e eran suroH 's1ro1dxe rraqt ssalq ol peueas teqt ro,tuJ eurlrp eqt pue ssar*ord rreql o u8rs E sE suroq qtr^ < sre^olloJ rraqi Suoure parouoq arar* 'spo3 dllenlce Jerrep -uEXelV 'srs1 uer1d,(39 eqt pue 'ssartunq aqt 'eurrq spr* se 'suroq Surree.r* palcrdap arar* snsLuorq puu ued spoD >laerD lueroue eqJ 'sartarcos Surlunq cqtrloeN ot peug -uoc lou ruolsns puardsaprr* B suJor < Surrear* 1ng ,,'arp Jsnlu 3ut4 eqa,, erurcaq ,,arp tsnur uos-ratunq eq1,, 'aldoad aqr roJ eJrl sn< u^op prBI oqrvr 3ur4 er<>Jo lEri> ot pepuelxe sB./v eqr4 eq> roJ oJII slq u^rop prEI oq^ relunq eql Jo uorlrpert e8y euolg ar<> rer<> lno poturod seq 'suorlrperl lenlurds uJelselA Jo JBIorur peAIoAo tlJlt aq> ur elor palcadsar puB >ueunuord dpur -sEaJJur uE parunssr Jelunq InJssaccns l.lpaleadar B eJurs luerudolalap 1ec6o1 E selv srrlJ 'u./rorc pdor eql sB pazr -1d1s aureceq dlpnluale sserppueq peuroq aql 'seJnllnc Suuunq crqlrloaN ur 'ralduqc snorrrerd aql ur 1vBs e,v sE 'Surleur8rro 'ruolsnc peerdsaprm E se/v lcadser puB rouoq o loqurds e sB suJor < Sur.rrer'r 'd11urruor1 'Jarr-ES Jo sa8urur dn pa11uc arn8g peuroq due arurl uI 'uul -BS uurtsuqf, ar<> Jo uor>Bluesardar u sr 'po3 peuroH er pesn sarJeuorssrru 'uog auurrq erow crurso3

    another image of the great Western archetype of the king who laid down his life for his people. Many customs and terms continue to reflect the importance that horns once held in local folklore. The word scorn comes from the Italian word that means "without horns," for to be without horns was a sign of disgrace, shame, or contempt. Holding up the index and little fingers in the form of horns was a gesture to ward off the evil eye. Today it means "bull." The lucky horseshoe is shaped like curved horns. And since it was the male animal that had horns, the horn easily became a phallic symbol. Leo Martello has called our attention to the fact that the contemporary adiective "hotny," which up until recently applied only to men, is also derived from these concepts. Among the old European nature religions the male deities (the goat-footed, Greek nature God Pan, the Roman Faunus, the Celtic Cernunnos) represented the Son of the Great Cosmic Mother. Together Mother and Son embodied the powerful, lusty, life forces of the earth. The priestesses of the Old Religion honored the Goddess and her Horned Consort by adorning their priests with horns and wearing the crescent, horn-shaped moon on their own foreheads. Against these old religious practices the church waged a bitter campaign. Among their weapons were the teachings that woman was evil, witchcraft was the work of the devil, and the horned representations of the God and Goddess were images of Satan. Underlying these attacks were the fears of women, sex, nature, and the human body. Official church doctrine, worked out over the centuries by an all-male, celibate clergy, preached that woman was the source of all evil (since Eve trafficked with the serpent), that the earth was cursed by God (as a punishment for that sin), and that sex and the body were dirty and vile. "The world, the flesh, and the devil" is the way it was-and is still-summed up.

    rBloqss uBcrunuocl 'saAIas

    slq8noql d1sn1a1ure1ot ot llncslp U punoJ

    oq,/v sr?rrJ pue slsarrd etBqrloc ol lBerql elqBJeprsuoJ E sBlvr sseppoD aql o] perf,ps erem deqt esnBJeq ,,erns -ea1d o stcB,, palBrqeler ]Eqr dlllunllrlds V 'perres aq plnor dUlenxas s,uoruo.rv terrJ lBnxas pellolur

    luqt slunlu dlercadsa 'sdup dloq oseql uo eceld 4ool leql Sut4erudrraru aql ]sure8e peqcuard oslr serluorS Jo tseeJ eqt 'xournbe Suuds eql q>r^ ralsBg 'ecrlslos Jelurlvr er<> q>r/v itltuoc 01 peqsrlqB]se

    "fall from paradise" myth created a theology "that cannot deal with the holiness of sexuality." As he writes in Original Blessing, his plea for a more mystical, earthy, feminist Christianity, "It is no secret that the models of sanctity that the patriarchal period of Christianity has held up to us have rarely been laypersons." The ideal in the Catholic Church has always been celibacy, and an active sexual life outside of marriage has always been discouraged. A woman was allowed to express her sexuality only as a sex partner for a husband. In other words, a woman's sexuality must be limited to a patriarchal marriage, where it can be controlled by a man. Even within marriage, sex was suspect. It was still "the flesh," which traditional Christian theology tells us is weak. A celibate clergy and virginal nuns convey a pretty clear message (as does the message recently reaffirmed by the Vatican that women cannot be priests because they do not have male bodies!). Some Christian thinkers have long suspected that sex was the original sin and that eating the fruit of the tree of knowledge was a metaphor, which mercifully avoided the need to actually say "it" in a sacred book! It has been taught that Eve the temptress was a seductress, and that every woman is Eve. This argument was used during the Burning Times and up into our own era to create suspicion about women's motives. Clearly, the church could not tolerate the old earth religions of pre-Christian cultures. But the interesting question is: Why, after hundreds of years of "coexistence" between Christian communities and pockets of Old Believers, did such a venomous and bloodthirsty attack upon Witches begin in the late fifteenth century and continue for over two hundred years? The lack of action by the early medieval church has been attributed to its lacking the political machinery to carty out any widespread campaign against Witches. In the early Mid-

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    indigenous societies here whose concepts of land and spirit stood in the way of what was called "progress." The enclosure movement, which began in the high Middle Ages and continued down into the nineteenth century, severely disrupted peasant life. By "enclosing" common lands to be run under their own jurisdiction, landowners deprived peasants of their age-old rights. The feudal concept of land as an organism shared by all elements of society was gradually eroded by a market economy. In the process entire villages were depopulated. Thousands of peasant families were driven farther into the unsettled areas or lured into the towns and growing cities to work as wage earners for the new industries. Village pagan life was disrupted, neighbors began to fear neighbors, and, as often happens, scapegoats were needed to explain the unsettled times. How easy it was for the church and wealthy interests to exploit this situation by launching Witch-hunts in local areas against individuals who believed in the old ways and fought for a way of life based on the oneness of the land and the sacredness of the earth. In addition to wealthy commercial interests and landowners eager to exploit the land, the medical profession also took an interest in the persecution of Witches and those healers who offered an alternative to the medical practices taught in the universities of the day. The effort to establish a professional medical community involved restricting medical knowledge to those who took formal courses of study. They, of course, could then set their own fees and exclude anyone they did not deem fit to practice. It is not surprising that they deemed women unfit to be healers. As the MaIIeus malificarum stated, "If a woman dare to cure without having studied, she is a Witch and must die." Simple as that. Witches had, of course, studied, but not in the universities. They studied in nature, learned from older women

    -uo./vt oN 'saar71pnu lsaq oql uaql aperu dralocer uelsBq puu l <>./ rurrq eroru seop euo ou,, leq] palurelc re8uardg puu Jarrr -eBr) '1rorros uI puB ured ur uerpllqJ rEeq o1 aABq plnol eqs lBr<1 req plol puB u9luolv pesrnc pBq tueuB>seJ plo eqt Jo poC aqt roJ /qlrqplql ur dlptcadsa 'ragns ol pesoddns ara^ aldoed '11e s,e,rg pue lrrspv Jo esnuo -ag 'uurlsrrqf,-un sur'r ured Surleuturrll 'dxopoqlro snolS -rler Jo ellsrelqns osle erervr s11qs Sutleeq s,q3lllA V iil^ep eril Jo )iJoA eql arel sernc snolncErllu ,seqcllla 'slurBs Jo uorluaArelul aql ro poD 01 palnqrrllB erefi 'rotcop e dq paurroyad uaqr* 'sernJ snolnourltu 'd11ect -uoJI 'qclllA e uo lI eIuEIq sdur'rp plnoc eq euoetuos ernJ l,uplnoo Jolf,op B ueqiA 'suetctsdqd luerou8r .ro sleo8 -adecs osle era,r seqclllA 'eulolperu elqEIIB^B dluo eqr eror* s11ads pue sIurEI<3 s,rIlA u aldoad duuru ro puv '(rnluac qleltuervti ar

    ro lcedser s,uorssaord leclpaur eletu aql ullv ol elllll p1p ll,'suu4 ur roltop ro Jelselrr lseluar8 aql ueql eulc -lpatu puu dra8rns ]o uE or<> uI resl.rv,, sr,l aiEqi palels trrprel aqr q8noqllv 'slred o dltsre,rrun eql le dllncul IpJlperu aqr dq peFl pue aulclperu Surcrlcerd roJ palsel -rE sBlv uBruolv e T,7,gI u1 'Suquaq te pooS ere,/v saIIla rBqt sE/v r puB uotssaord IBcIpou eqi pa11e3 .(11ear lBqlA 'sallesrueqt sqreq pue slueld eql urorJ eJIApB pe uI

    der the medical profession launched a campaign to eliminate midwives as a legitimate calling! It was a long campaign. It took until the twentieth century in America (and with considerable money and propaganda from the American Medical Association) to eliminate midwifery from the available options for childbirth. Fortunately, in the last couple of decades, Americans are once again asking for midwives and natural forms of childbirth. Many doctors are still against midwives, but I haven't heard any of them drag out the old sixteenth-century argument that if a midwife can provide a comfortable, safe, and easy birth, she must be in league with the devil. Women were denied professional status as healers by an all-male, medical-religious establishment eager to discredit natural healing techniques as being superstitious, ineffective, and even dangerous. We now know from anthropological studies of peoples in Africa, Polynesia, and North and South America that one of the most effective ways to destroy a culture is to destroy confidence in its healers and spiritual leaders. When these two roles are undermined, people become demoralized, their way of life collapses, and they are more easily assimilated into the value system of the invading forces, be they political or ecclesiastical. The rising professions, in league with church authorities, did precisely that all across Europe. They created the image of the Witch as a meddlesome, superstitious huckster of ineffectual and dangerous cures and remedies. And they said her Horned God was the Christian Satan. To fustify the millions of executions, the church created a systematic demonology around pre-Christian folk beliefs, practices, and holidays. To these were added the fantasies about pacts with the devil, bizarre and sadistic sexual rites, and obscene travesties of Catholic ceremonies. The worst Christian fears about salvation and eter-

    Watch the video: Πώς φτιάχνουμε ζωμό κοτόπουλο. Yiannis Lucacos (September 2021).